The
space-time expansion arises of the big bang theory an unjustified
explanation to develop the universe

Note: in this chapter, we'll presenta new definition of space-time
continuum.

To clarify the subject, we'll start with a simple example.
Suppose that we have two metal wire with the same alloy. One of them
has 1 meter long and the other has 10 meters long at 30º
Celsius. It should be state that,
the 1m long wire is divided into 100 equal sections (100cm). Now, we
transfer the wires to an imaginary planet that the temperature on
the surface is more than 30º
which leads to the expansion of wires so that 1m long wire will
increase to 101cm and the 10m long wire will become 10m,10cm. in
this situation, if we measure the second wire with the first one,
we'll obtain the 10m long again, because:

m0
is length of 1m wire and T0
for 10m wire at 30º, whereas m is the length of the first wire and T
is the length of second wire in the hot imaginary planet. ∆m, ∆T
will show the length differences (expansion values). It's clear
that, to measure the expansion of the second wire, we should make
cold the first wire to 30º, and then make scale; otherwise, we'll
get the primary result without any expansion.

The more important result of light speed measurement under the
different conditions in space or in vacuum, is this reality that the
measurement the change of light place into the change of time is
always fixed quantity, that is:

The result of dividing length to time is always fixed
quantity which can be called the space-time continuum that is the
simple definition for it. Therefore, if we measure the light speed
with a scale less than the speed of light, we get the fixed number
of C. for the first time, Fritz Gerald, presented an interesting
theory. According to him, all materials in themselves motion will be
contract. Afterwards, a person, whose name was Lorenz, claimed that
the time should be stretch and formulate the length and time
changes. What happens is that, by increasing the speed, our meter
will become shorter and the time work slowly and at the time of
measuring the light speed we'll achieve the former result.

For example, suppose that a light ray with c velocity and a
spaceship with c/2 velocity are moving into a one direction. If we
ask the passengers to measure the light speed and report the result,
in classic laws we expect the reported speed to be 150,000km/s (the
reported speed = light speed - speed of spaceship) but they will
report 300,000km/s and the first and the more logical inference is
that in them instrument to measure the meter and time there is some
changes and based upon Gerald-Lorenz equations:

In fact, they divide our 259,807km to our 0.8660 second and get
to 300,000km/s. Indeed, for them, one meter is equal our 86.60cm and
one second equals our 0.8660s. In simple definition the space-time
continuum can be described by the following relation:

x is the length, x' is the shorted length, v is velocity, c is
the fixed speed of light, t is time and t' is the slowdown of time.
Later, Albert Einstein, by using of these theories, represented the
relativity theory and stated that the light speed is fixed and equal
c for the all observers, which is not clear for all. In fact, the
light speed will be measured equality by all observers, because by
changing the length, time will change, too. Indeed the light or its
speed is an instrument for adjusting the length to time; then,
everywhere and anytime, we can set the time and length measuring
tools carefully.

Look the following picture and suppose that, the space is
contracted at B for the non gravitational elements.

We consider two rays of light with the same phase, energy, wave
length and frequency, which one of them passes by B and the other is
far away and parallel of each other. Since the space is contracted,
by passing the second light ray of the side of B, gradually, the
length of light wave is decreasing while the frequency and energy
are increasing, that is, moving to blue spectrum. But, when the
second light ray gets away of B, gradually, the length of light wave
is increasing and the frequency and energy are decreasing, that is,
moving to red spectrum. It is clear that, in this situation the
first light ray is overtaking of the second one while, the energy is
fixed at all (the numbers of cycles are equal). In drawing the
figure, we didn't show the effective cases of light deviation.

As we know that, the wave length and frequency equation is:

c is the fixed speed of light and his unit is meter in second, f
is frequency and his unit is Hz (cycles per second), λ is wave
length and his unit is meter. It's clear that the space-time
continuum is the result of dividing meter to second which is
distinct at two parties of the equation. What does it mean?

If we suppose that an observer comes near B, along with the
second light ray, by decreasing wave length of light his unit of
length (meter), will decrease and his tool of time (chronometer or
watch) will works too slow, then he never understand decreasing the
speed of light and increasing the frequency and energy of
electromagnetic wave. In fact, all changes at speed, frequency and
energy for observers who far away from B, will be sensible and it is
unnoticeable for observer who stands at B.

All three observers at A,B,C are in agreement about the speed,
frequency, wave length and energy, but the fourth observer who is
far away of B will find out the changes in space-time continuum,
light velocity, frequency, wave length and energy.

d is the length. To find the light speed, we should divide value
of light displacement to value of the time changes. Since in space
contract, our tool for measuring the length is decreased and our
watch works slowly, we'll get the former result for light speed and
it will happen for expansion of the space-time, that is, our unit of
length (meter) is longer and our watch works quickly. Pay attention
to this relation:

By increasing the wave length (λ) to reason of becoming lengthen m (space expansion), the light speed should be increase with
regard to the next observer's sight but by increasing this wave
length because of space-time expansion, time will be quickly, then
the value of s (time) is increased and finally light speed will
measure steady. But the far observer will realize the growth of
light speed, because there is no change at his s (time) and m
(meter) thus for near observer we can omit m/s (space-time
continuum) at two parties of the contract and achieve this relation:

K is kilo = 1000, n is cycle (a light wave) and z is rate. Indeed
in this situation the space-time expansion or contraction will be
fixed value for speed, frequency and wave length of light to the
next observer of the second light ray, all the time. And these
values will be change for the far observer and it is for differences
at their time and space.

The big bang theorists believe there was no space-time before the
big bang and everything has been in a very hot and dense globe and
after this explosion, space-time, material and energy are appeared
and our space-time is expanding and is caused to increase the first
wave length of explosion's light and change into the universe
background waves; and they consider it, as an evidence to confirm
their hypothesis. It should mention that we are the attendant light
of the big bang and by space-time expansion, our unit to measure
the length (meter) will become longer and also our watch (time) will
works quickly. In this relation because the light speed is fixed
then the frequency, wave length and energy is also fixed because our
meter and time measuring tools is a subset of the world's space-time
continuum. That is, we aren't observer the light of the big bang
because nature of these universe background waves is radio and
microwave. Thus universe background waves are not the evidence to
prove the big bang theory and they are not related to the light of
big bang, secondly the big bang or space-time expansion aren't cause
of developing the world because in this case our meter will become
longer continually and we cannot realize the universe developing
because the outcome of dividing the universe diameter changing to
the our meter changing will be fixed because both of them will be
expand together. That is:

∆U is the change of universe diameter, ∆m is the change of our
meter and Constant is a fixed number, and we'll obtain the former
result at anytime, but it's not true!

Every time, we can find out developing of the universe (the
galaxies are moving away of each other) with acceleration.
It means that, the average size of our meter at the world is fixed.
In other words:

The result of universe diameter changing to our fixed meter is
increasing day by day and this process is progressive. Indeed, the
cause of developing the world is the negative gravitational field of
universe that causes the galaxies move away of each other with all
speed and this matter is not related into the galaxies, that is, the
average size of galaxies will be fixed at all.